Borehole geophysical logging is a method of observing and determining physical and electrical properties of subsurface geology via a borehole. The work is performed with the help of geophysical logging tools, which are specialized instruments used in subsurface studies.
Electrical resistivity, represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho), is a measure of the resistance of a specific material of a given size, to the electrical current conduction that flows through it. It is also referred to as the specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity
Groundwater is monitored in many parts of the world by measuring groundwater levels, groundwater abstraction rates, spring discharge and groundwater quality. Groundwater level point measurements are often interpolated and combined with other data (e.g. remote sensing and modelling) to assess the state of groundwater resources.
Soil moisture is a key element of the surface water budget. Monitoring soil moisture provides the necessary information to adopt and implement strategies to reduce damage due to deficits in precipitation as well as determine approaches to optimize the management of natural ecosystems under the threat of climate change.
The Scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. It also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, glacial, fluvial, oceanic, and atmospheric.